In 2017, HGPI took the opportunity to collaborate with the University of Tokyo to revitalize a renewed program called “Global Health Education Program” with an enhanced focus on interactions among young generations of Japan and the world. G-HEP 2017 specifically focused on building new friendship and stronger partnership among youth of China and Japan. The program was conducted in English and took place in Tokyo, Japan and Beijing, China.
Tokyo Session: Day 1
●Welcome and Introduction
Sarah Abe (Assistant Professor, Department of Global Health Policy, The University of Tokyo)
Masa Takamatsu (Associate, Health and Global Policy Institute)
Dr. Takamatsu opened the session by introducing the purpose and overview of G-HEP 2017 and explained the theme of the program “Cooperation and Leadership in Public Health by Youth of China and Japan: Exploring the Common Ground”. He also provided a brief explanation of key concepts such as Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This was followed by an ice-breaking session led by Dr. Abe where participants were asked to line up according to their birth dates and introduced themselves.
●Problem Solving and Design Thinking
Mayuka Yamazaki (Project Assistant Professor, Global Health Entrepreneurship Program, The University of Tokyo)
Ms. Yamazaki introduced problem-solving approach and design thinking through a brief lecture and mini workshop. Problem-solving approach try to understand what a real issue is and come up with a solution to the issue, conversely, design thinking is focused more on creativity putting the participant at center of the thinking process (“how might we.”), and thus a powerful tool for brainstorming. Participants were asked to imagine they were an intern in the WHO disaster response unit and are going to present on the Tohoku post-disaster relief efforts to a supervisor during a coffee break. The basic four steps include planning, research, analysis and synthesis. Ms. Yamazaki also introduced some analytical frameworks such as MECE and system thinking. At the end of the session, participants were divided into groups and listed thirty problems found in the Ito Center (G-HEP venue), categorizing them and having discussions. Finally, group members presented results and feedback was provided by Ms. Yamazaki.
●Responding to Emerging Infectious Diseases
Go Tanaka (Councilor of the Coordination Office of Measures on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan)
Dr. Tanaka provided an overview of the current global movement in response to emerging infectious diseases. In the Joint Statement of the 9th Tripartite Health Ministers Meeting in 2016, strengthening partnerships was emphasized to address the current global health agenda. The concept of health diplomacy was also mentioned, describing Japan’s role in the global health arena. Dr. Tanaka then touched upon the lessons learned from the Ebola crisis, and emphasized that the global action plan developed in 2016 embodies the concept of “human security” which Japan advocated. Health was one of the top priorities discussed during the G7 Ise-shima Summit in 2016, highlighting Emergency Preparedness & Response, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and UHC as key agenda items. Delegates at the 69th World Health Assembly also discussed emergency preparedness reform. Throughout the process, the role of international collaboration and partnerships was identified as a measure key to establish resilient healthcare systems.
●Assessment of Progress Towards Universal Health Coverage in China from 1989 to 2011
Yi Liao (PhD Candidate, Department of Global Health Policy, The University of Tokyo)
Dr. Liao first introduced key concepts of UHC, followed by a history of health care reforms in China. She identified three key health challenges in China: demographic transition – population aging, epidemiological transition – management of NCDs, and inequalities in health – rural-urban disparities. Health service coverage and financial risk protection with an equity lens were at the heart of the results presented. Dr. Liao’s research identified three main areas for improvement: increase financial support, improve management of NCDs and reduce rural-urban disparities and income- related inequalities.
Tokyo Session: Day 2
●Takeda Contribution to Global Health
Haruhiko Hirate (Corporate Communications & Public Affairs Officer, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd)
As an introduction to the private sectors involvement Mr. Hirate provided an overview of Takeda, patient-focused, innovation-driven global pharmaceutical company founded in 1781. Takeda’s Access to Medicine project was also introduced, including capacity building, establishment of center of excellence in Nairobi, and provision of vaccines as part of their CSR activities. He also touched upon Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT Fund) as a Japan’s unique platform for collaboration. Mr. Hirate discussed the high NCD burden in China with pollution levels similar to Tokyo 40 years ago, currently damaging the health of the people. 100 Japanese delegates travelled to China to exchange thoughts with China’s FDA and ministry. One main problem identified was the Chinese medical structure with primary health care not well-developed. Mr. Hirate eagerly responded to numerous questions including clarifying the meaning of patent in Latin: opening.
●The Current State of Diabetes Treatment in Japan: The Globalization of Medicine
Yoko Iizuka (Project Lecturer, Assistant Professor, and Research Associate, The University of Tokyo)
Dr. Iizuka gave an in-depth overview of diabetes in Japan. The lecture included various trends and mechanisms as well as management strategies. She introduced the patient-centered, team-based medicine holistic approach to diabetes in Japan. This includes specific goals, complications, prevention and treatment, through nutrition, exercise and drugs. In the final part of the presentation Dr. Iizuka shared a case study of how she introduced Japan’s diabetes treatment method in China starting in 2011 with the objective of medical internationalization. At the end she conveyed her personal messages to the participants, including her motto “Where there is a will, there is a way”.
●Sustainability of Health Systems in Aging Societies
Kenji Shibuya (Professor and Chair, Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo; President, Japan Institute for Global Health (JIGH))
Prof. Shibuya provided an overview of the challenges Japanese health care is currently facing – providing equitable good health at a low cost. We need health care to be a social system. Prof. Shibuya introduced Japan Vision: Health Care 2035 which he chaired. Key issues: move from patchwork health policy to comprehensive reform with a long-term vision. We need a paradigm shift from quantity to quality, inputs to value, regulation to autonomy, cure to care and fragmentation to integration. Health Care 2035 has three visions: lean healthcare, life design, global health leader. In the end, he concluded his lecture with “Global health is the future of medicine” – Tachi Yamada.
●Keynote Speech “Globalization and its Implications for Healthcare”
Kiyoshi Kurokawa (Chairman, Health and Global Policy Institute)
Dr. Kurokawa provided an outlook of the challenges that the world is currently facing, describing globalization as an inter-dependent, super-connected and fragile process. He also showed data on global wealth inequality, as well as rapid changes in the political, economic, tech and business environment. The principals and visions of the Japan Vision: Health Care 2035 were also mentioned. Dr. Kurokawa also discussed major shifts in disease burden, particularly increasing of NCDs and dementia with aging populations, as well as the importance of social determinants of health. He touched upon demographic shifts and changes in disease patterns, and highlighted increased healthcare cost in Japan. Focusing on dementia, Dr. Kurokawa introduced some platforms in Western countries (WDC, GAP, EPAD), as well as the recent creation of Japan’s platforms for dementia and PPP. At the end of the session, a lively discussion was held with participants and other invited audience members and Dr. Kurokawa shared his message to them.
Beijing Session: Day 4
●Chinese Healthcare System -Challenges & Reform
Feng Cheng (Professor and Director, School of Medicine, Global Health Program, Research Center For Public Health, Tsinghua University)
Prof. Feng Cheng welcomed Global Health Education Program (G-HEP) participants from Japan as a partner organization based in China. His lecture summarized the structure of the Chinese healthcare system and its challenges and reform. In the first half of his lecture, he explained improvements of Chinese healthcare with major indicators followed by major challenges and reform. In the second part of his presentation, he shared ideas for possible cooperation and collaboration between China and Japan with a description of the common ground in the field of healthcare. He concluded his lecture with his ideal model of leaders in global health based on his experience working in the international context.
●Demography and Universal Health Coverage (UHC)
Mizanur Rahman (Project Assistant Professor, Department of Global Health Policy, The University of Tokyo)
Prof. Mizanur Rahman gave a lecture on demography and UHC. As a project assistant professor at the University of Tokyo, his lecture was interactive, engaging participants . He touched upon the basic concepts of demography, covering its three components: fertility, mortality and migration. This laid out a good foundation to capture the situation of ageing in China and Japan. In his presentation, demographic graphs of both countries were shown, showing the similarities underlying ageing problems. Following the lecture on demography, he talked about UHC with a focus on aging. The participants had a vibrant Q&A session.
●China-Japan Partnership for Healthcare and Social Welfare
Yoshiro Hano (First Secretary, Consular and Economic Affairs Division, Embassy of Japan in China)
The Japanese government’s support of development in China started in 1970. It’s primary focus was maintaining infrastructure, formulating environmental measures, improving basic health and healthcare needs, and cultivating human resources. This resulted in rapid economic development and technological advancement, indicating Japan’s success in contributing to China’s development. In regards to China’s future ODA, Mr. Hano expressed the importance of recognizing similar issues faced by both countries, past gains by Japanese citizens, and areas that require cooperation. Currently, about 10% of China’s population is over 65 years old, similar to Japan in 1985. China will face events experienced by Japan in the past 30 years at an accelerated pace. Therefore, it is necessary for Japan to reach out to China regarding its past experiences and care taking insurance system. Currently, the government of Japan has been working hard to establish a community care system by 2025. China has expressed similar interest in establishing such a system. Therefore, we foresee more opportunities for further collaboration in system building processes between the two countries.
Beijing Session: Day 5
●Site Visit: Chaoyang District Anzhen Community Health Service Center
The participants from Japan had an opportunity visit to Chaoyang District Anzhen Community Health Service Center. The visit was accompanied by Dr. Zhang Nan, Director of Chaoyang District Anzhen Community Health Service Center, and Mr. Meng Huachuan, Project Manager of the International Medical Exchange and Cooperation office at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital. In China, community health service centers serve as primary health care agency providing care to the community, holding a different role than secondary and tertiary medical institutes which offer higher level of health care services. At the Anzhen Community Health Service Center, G-HEP participants saw the outpatient departments of general internal medicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The center puts great emphasis on health education and management of residents, by providing classes on health and forming a peer-group to promote exercise and healthy diet. One of the most significant efforts was the use of ICT (information and communication technology) in community engagement. The center utilizes WeChat (China’s prominent messaging service on smartphone) to connect with each patient for their health updates and provide a reminder of their medical checkups. At the end of the site visit, “Dr. Zhang Nan ” offered a Q&A session where participants actively asked about the outpatient environment (number of patients, wait time and interview time), coordination with the Ministry of Health, implementation of ICT in clinical settings, control of infectious risks (outbreak of influenza, AMR) and the situation of elderly care including dementia. The site visit provided participants with a firsthand experience of the Chinese health care system.
Beijing Session: Day 6
●Public Private Partnership in Global Health
Kei Katsuno (Director, Investment Strategy & Development, Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT Fund))
Dr. Katsuno began by describing the background of investment strategy and development in global health, only 1% of these new treatments were developed to fight infectious diseases in developing nations. He then moved on to discuss the physical and economic burden that infectious diseases have on people living in developing countries. The changing picture of diseases combined with the lack of incentives for research of certain diseases and a host of political and infrastructure issues present a major challenge in global health and contribute to the ongoing threat of infectious diseases. Against this backdrop, the GHIT Fund which is the world’s first product development fund for global health R&D works as a platform to empower a win-win-win relationship among these sectors, while harnessing them in a lasting way to address key global health challenges.
Beijing Session: Day 7
●Keynote Presentation “Priorities in Global Health & China’s Engagement”
Liu Peilong (Director, Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, Peking University)
Prof. Liu Peilong concluded a series of G-HEP lectures with his keynote presentation titled
“Priorities in Global Health and China’s Engagement”. As an accomplished global health expert, his talk covered a wide range of themes from the basic issues to cutting-edge insights. He shared the definition of global health and elaborated on the two most important priories: development for health equity and global action for health security. The second part of his lecture touched on China’s history in global health. China was previously a recipient of the WHO fund or ODA. The country has now become one of the largest contributors to improving health around the globe. Prof. Liu Peilong explained that China’s aid has progressed in phases to meet the needs of global health, with emphasis that all of their engagements are project-based, which is different from initiatives by other OECD countries. Amazed by China’s progress in last three decades, participants asked him a variety of questions from sustainability of aid to characteristics of a global health leader.
For more details of the program, please download the report.
・Health and Global Policy Institute (HGPI)
Partner Schools in China:
・School of Public Health, Peking University
・Research Center for Public Health, Tsinghua University
Health and Global Policy Institute (HGPI)
Masa Takamatsu/Yuko Imamura